Medical literature does not support scuba diving with a history of spontaneous pneumothorax: The condition is a definite contraindication to diving. Spontaneous pneumothorax usually occurs as a result of an underlying cystic disease of the lung. With this condition, fluid-filled cysts rupture, allowing the lung to collapse.
One of the principal dangers of this condition is that spontaneous pneumothorax can reoccur in either lung - an extremely difficult condition to manage if it occurs while the diver is still underwater. The air space that the lung occupied would expand as the diver ascended. It is impossible to determine the amount of risk involved in scuba diving with a history of spontaneous pneumothorax, even if an individual had the surgery.